Quickstart

A simple serializer

Let’s start by creating a simple model class:

class Simpson(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.first_name = ""
        self.last_name = ""

    def __str__(self):
        return self.first_name + " " + self.last_name

To create a serializer, we need to map model attributes to fields of the resulting DTO:

from beerializer import Serializer, fields

class SimpsonSerializer(Serializer):
    class Meta:
        model = Simpson

    first_name = fields.StringField(name="firstName")
    last_name = fields.StringField(name="lastName")

When you get a payload that requires one of these serializers, call Serializer.load(data):

>>> data = {
...     "firstName": "Homer",
...     "lastName": "Simpson",
... }
>>> s = SimpsonSerializer.load(data)
>>> s
<__main__.Simpson object at ...>
>>> str(s)
'Homer Simpson'

To go the other way. Pass the object you want to transfer into the dump method:

>>> homer = Simpson()
>>> homer.first_name = "Homer"
>>> homer.last_name = "Simpson"
>>> SimpsonSerializer.dump(homer)
{'firstName': 'Homer', 'lastName': 'Simpson'}

Readonly and hidden fields

To hide a field from output, use keyword hidden:

>>> class BartSerializer(Serializer):
...     grade = fields.StringField(hidden=True)
...
>>> o = BartSerializer.load({"grade": "C"})
>>> o.grade
'C'
>>> BartSerializer.dump(o)
{}

To make a field readonly, use... well, you guessed it:

>>> class NewBartSerializer(Serializer):
...     grade = fields.StringField(readonly=True)
...
>>> NewBartSerializer.load({"grade": "C"})
Traceback (most recent call last):
  [...]
beerializer.base.ValidationError: ['Field grade is read only.']

SQLAlchemy

SQLAlchemy support comes in an additional package:

pip install beerializer-sqlalchemy

Now you only need to specify model on a serializer:

>>> from beerializer_sqlalchemy import ModelSerializer
>>> from .models import User
>>> class UserSerializer(ModelSerializer):
...     class Meta:
...         model = User
...
>>> homer = User.query.get(1)
>>> UserSerializer.dump(homer)
{'id': 1, 'first_name': 'Homer', 'last_name': 'Simpson', ...}

You can specify which fields to dump by specifying Meta.fields:

>>> class MiniUserSerializer(ModelSerializer):
...     class Meta:
...         model = User
...         fields = ["last_name"]
...
>>> MiniUserSerializer.dump(homer)
{'last_name': 'Simpson'}

To override any options for a field or if its type can’t be guessed, just add it as you would usually do:

>>> from lazy_serializer.contrib.sqlalchemy import ModelSerializer
>>> class StrangeUserSerializer(ModelSerializer):
...     first_name = fields.StringField(name="firstName")
...     class Meta:
...         model = User
...
>>> StrangeUserSerializer.dump(homer)
{'id': 1, 'firstName': 'Camel', 'last_name': 'Snake', ...}

Fields

To implement your own fields, derive from Field and implement clean and object_to_data. ValidationError should be thrown if the data is bad.

import uuid
class UUIDField(fields.Field):
    def clean(self, data):
        try:
            return uuid.UUID(data)
        except ValueError:
            raise ValidationError("{} is required to conform to the canonical UUID.".format(self.name))

    def object_to_data(self, obj):
        return str(obj)

When you go to create your serializer, just use the field as you would any other field.

>>> class BartSerializer(Serializer):
...     uuid = UUIDField()
...
>>> s = BartSerializer()
>>> s.validate({"uuid": "01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef"})
<object ...>
>>> _.uuid
UUID('01234567-89ab-cdef-0123-456789abcdef')

Validators

You can specify custom validators for individual fields. These are just objects with a ‘validate’ method that accepts the field and the data as parameters. ValidationError should be raised if there is a problem with validation.

class EnumValidator(object):
    def __init__(self, *choices):
        self.choices = choices

    def validate(self, field, data):
        if data not in self.choices:
            raise ValidationError(
                "{} must be one of {}. Got {}."
                    .format(field.name, self.choices, data))

Use the ‘validators’ key word argument to use the validator with a particular field.

>>> class LisaSerializer(Serializer):
...     grade = fields.StringField(validators=[EnumValidator("A+", "A")])
...
>>> lisa = LisaSerializer.load({"grade": "A+"})
>>> lisa.grade
'A+'

>>> try:
...     lisa = LisaSerializer.load({"grade": "A-"})
... except ValidationError as ex:
...     print("Validation failed:")
...     print(ex.errors)
Validation failed:
["grade must be one of ('A+', 'A').  Got A-."]